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Archaeology

Excavation at Wintershead: providing shade for photographic recording.

The earliest remains date from the late Mesolithic (8000-4000 BC), and comprise small flint implements called microliths. The first settled communities built a range of monuments and Exmoor is especially rich in prehistoric standing stones as well as nearly 400 burial mounds. Prehistoric hut circles and field systems can also be found on the moors. These sites form a remarkable group dating from the Neolithic (4000-2000BC) and Bronze Age (2000-700BC). The later prehistoric period is characterised by small settlements which archaeologists term `hillslope enclosures', and hillforts. Although none of these have been excavated they are thought to date from the Iron Age. Roman activity on Exmoor is represented by two fortlets on the coast at Old Burrow and Martinhoe, whilst Exmoor is ringed by Roman forts on its southern side. Recent work is showing that the Romans exploited Exmoor’s iron deposits as well.

The evidence for post-Roman Exmoor is several inscribed stones (the Culbone Stone and the Caractacus Stone on Winsford Hill for examples), some early Christian church dedications and some early place-names. Exmoor has three Norman castles one of which, Dunster, was rebuilt in stone. Two priories were founded in the medieval period at Dunster and Barlynch. The settlement pattern of farms, hamlets and villages was largely established by the end of the 13th century. Several settlements were abandoned in the medieval period and these form a valuable insight into life on Exmoor in medieval times - the best preserved is at Badgworthy.

More recently Exmoor has been the home to a number of major estates and `improving' families, who sought to better Exmoor's agriculture and infrastructure. Their influence is a constant presence in the modern landscape, in the architecture, roads, field patterns and settlements.

Three constant themes underpin Exmoor's archaeology and help to explain why the human landscape has developed in the ways it has. Firstly farming has always played and continues to play a central place on Exmoor. Secondly iron mining has been a major influence over the last 2000 years. Thirdly Exmoor's relationship with its coastline. This has been fundamental, both as an essential means of communication and trade, but also since the end of the 18th century as a tourist destination, which has helped to shape the coastal settlements and give them their unique character.

A feature of Exmoor's archaeology is its good preservation. This is in large part due to the lack of intensive agricultural improvement in the past.


Here are some upcoming events that might be particularly suitable for people who are interested in finding out more about Exmoor's past. Or you can browse all events here

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Lynton & Barnstaple Railway - Santa Specials

Woody Bay Station, Martinhoe Cross, Parracombe, BARNSTAPLE
9th Dec 2017 10:30am - 24th Dec 2017 4:00pm
Our very popular Santa Specials operate over the weekends of December 9 &10 , 16...
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Festive visit to the castle break

Yarn Market Hotel, Dunster
15th Dec 2017 - 17th Dec 2017

Open Day at Simonsbath Sawmill

Simonsbath Sawmill SS 77153915
16th Jan 2017 10:00am-4:00pm

Lynton & Barnstaple Railway - Mince Pie Specials

Woody Bay Station, Martinhoe Cross, Parracombe, BARNSTAPLE
29th Dec 2017 10:30am - 1st Jan 2018 4:00pm

New Year Jazz with the John Shillito Band

Yarn Market Hotel, Dunster
30th Dec 2017 - 2nd Jan 2018

Open Day at Simonsbath Sawmill

Simonsbath Sawmill SS 77153915
16th Jan 2017 10:00am-4:00pm